16 Best Hidden Blade Ceiling Fans with Folding Invisible Blades in 2020

  • by

The age-old dispute remains. Should it be a ceiling fan or a chandelier? But do you know what is cooler than a chandelier ceiling fan? It is a chandelier ceiling fan with hidden folding blades or as some like to call them invisible or retractable blades ceiling fans!

If you are moving in to a new house or just planning to upgrade and revamp your home, you have may have had this little debate with yourself a partner or a housemate. What works best with your ceiling? What is more practical? Which of the two would look good as an overhead décor?

And so, that is why the chandelier ceiling fan, or for some, Fandelier, was born.

We know the struggle. It sure is hard to give up both. While the ceiling fan has been a staple in every family or ancestral homes for a long time now, with the overhanging wings rotating idly, lulling the occupants to a cozy nap, it also lets you save some more extra space. Instead of having your fan taking up space in your floor or desk, it’s up there, mounted on the ceiling.

On the other hand, more homeowners are also turning to the gorgeous chandelier to upgrade their interiors. We know how a single, stately chandelier can transform the simplest room into a visual treat. The soft glare from the chandelier adds an elegant touch that most homeowners seek after.

Fortunately, this enduring question can now be put to rest. Today, you certainly can have the best of both worlds because chandelier ceiling fans are now becoming more and more popular. Relish the gentle breeze coming from the ceiling fan while enjoying the elegant light brought by a chandelier in one home fixture!

With an folding retractable blades  ceiling fan, you get to have both fan and chandelier in one body. But what’s unique with these types of ceiling fans is that you also get to hide the blades when not in use, reducing the chances of them collecting dusts, thus making it easier to clean and maintain.

To help you with choosing the perfect chandelier ceiling fan with hidden retractable blades, we have narrowed down your options to a list of some of the best in the market.


Review of the Best Hidden Blade Ceiling Fans

1. Bigbanban Crystal Ceiling Fan with 4 Retractable Blades

For those of you who want to add an elegant touch to their room without going overboard by making the room look “overdressed”, this stunning crystal ceiling fan from Bigbanban is no doubt a great choice. Hidden Blade Ceiling Fan

Modern elegance is what this silver work of art stands for.

Featuring pretty little K9 crystals around its metal body and a single crystal hanging down from its base like a pretty pendant, this unit looks even more stunning with its lights on.

With  this model, you’ll have 3 lighting options, the white light, which is perfect for daytime, the warm light and the romantic yellow light.

Of course, its ABS blades are retractable and can be conveniently invisible when not in use.

Features:

  • Diameter: 107cm when fan is open and 46cm when closed
  • Vertical height: 40cm
  •  4” and 8” downrods included.
  • Muted motor gives the quietest sound when the fan is running
  • Blades are made from ABC plastic that can withstand heat better than the standard plastic.
  • Also comes with a remote control for speed and lighting control

Customer feedback:

Customers claim to get compliments left and right as a result adding this deluxe ceiling fan to their homes. Although the instructional material that comes with it could have been better, the satisfied customers felt like it was all worth it the moment their new chandelier ceiling fan is mounted and sitting pretty on their ceiling.

According to the reviews, it’s also said that the way the blades unfurl and spread out when the fan is turned on is such a captivating sight to watch. Users also loved the 3 lighting options and the white light was confirmed to be really bright and is perfect for big rooms and office.


2. Fly Cat-Horse 42” Chandelier Fan Light with Retractable Blades

This stunning piece does not only boast of a rich golden shell and copper-colored rod with two bands of highly refractive K9 crystals around its body that shimmers ever so softly with the chandelier light, it is also amazingly rust-proof, so the assurance that it will stay in its pristine appearance for the several years to come is guaranteed.

The cleverly-curved blades of its fan extend up to 42 inches when in use with 3 speed settings that you can adjust remotely, and once the fan is switched on, its copper motor ensures a quiet run that lets you have a good night’s sleep if installed in the bedroom.

You can control the 3 lighting tones with the remote control included.

Features:

  • Dimensions: The fan’s acrylic blades can spread up to 42 inches when in use and then retract to 19.3 inches.
  • You can choose between the two pole length options, 3.9 inches and 7.8 inches, according to the height of your room. The copper-colored poles are also amazingly rust-proof.
  • With 3 levels of adjustable fan speed and 3 lighting tones, white, neutral and warm, to provide the right mood to go with the chosen theme for your room. You can adjust them using the provided remote control.
  • The fan is generated by a copper motor that produces less heat which means longer motor life and more energy saved so it is also cost-efficient.

Customer Feedback:

This golden beauty delivered a modern kind of glam to the customers’ indoor spaces The lengths of the pole was just the right size for their ceiling with no further adjustment needed. The users also loved the included convenient remote control and the fact that it comes with more than one lighting tone options.


3. Mooni Dimmable Fandelier Ceiling Fan with Folding Blades

If you still think that a fandelier is a bit too much or too fancy, let this masterwork change your mind. Ceiling Fans with Invisible Blades

Aside from its jaw-dropping aesthetic that can transform any room into a million-dollar suite, this Mooni hidden blade ceiling fan also has some more extra functions than your typical chandelier ceiling fan.

Notwithstanding its luxurious-looking physical features, you will certainly get your money’s worth and even more with its adjustable fan speed and lighting. Its light does not only go from very bright white to a romantic yellow but you can also combine the two for a more unique lighting tone.

Additionally, it can be dimmed down as well, making it a perfect lighting for bedtime.

As for the fan, its 36 inches blades are totally invisible when retracted, leaving the beautiful chandelier to shine on its own.

To top it all off, this impressive unit has a timer control that you can set before going to bed so it just turns itself off while you are sleeping.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 36 inches and 16 inches when fans are retracted with a canopy diameter of 5.9 inches/15 cm that is perfect for a  80-120 square feet rooms
  • Acrylic transparent retractable blades that look invisible even when the fan is running, recommended for a  12-22 m² room
  • The replaceable 32-watts LED panel lights can be changed into varied color temperatures from 2700K (Warm white) to 4500K (Day light) and 6000K (cool white) with dimming feature
  • With a remote control that lets you choose from 3 different fan speeds and change your ideal lighting set up
  • Also comes with 2 pieces of down rods (5” and 10”)

Customer Feedback:

Most customers who got this treat wanted a more upscale look for their rooms and it came with more welcomed features than they expected. Not only are the clear blades are perfectly unseen when they’re not in use but they are also almost invisible even when the fan is running, which caused a few gasps from their impressed guests. A few users didn’t like the dazzling, almost shimmering patterns the crystal chandelier throws around the room when hit by sunlight but a majority of them found it enchanting, adding a romantic effect to their rooms. The sleep timer also proved to be convenient and useful.


4. Panda 42”Hidden Ceiling Fan with Retractable Bladess

If you want to play up some more with your interiors while retaining some kind of elegance and sophistication, this eye-catcher by Panda Lighting is an ideal choice.

Reminiscent of the classic Art Deco style, this chandelier ceiling fan features a metal body with tasteful geometric patterns that come in three colors which might give you a hard time choosing because they all look equally striking.

Its LED light, with its two lighting tone options looks like a huge, lovely pearl when it’s on.

The ceiling fan’s blades, with its 3 speed options, spread up to 42 inches and is powered by high-quality pure copper coil motor so it runs quietly and smoothly, almost as if there’s no fan running above you.

Features:

  • Fan diameter: 42 inches fully spread and 20 inches when retracted with 3 speed options
  • Energy and cost-efficient LED lights that you can adjust into 2 tones, white light and normal light
  • Clear acrylic blades that look invisible behind the chandelier when the fan is not in use
  • Its acrylic and metal lampshade is decorated by classy geometrical patterns and comes in shades white, gold and black to suit your every style ideas
  • It also comes with a remote control for the speed and lighting options

Customer Feedback:

Customers loved the modern contemporary look this Panda chandelier ceiling fan contributed to their rooms. The fan indeed ran quietly and ever so smoothly while providing a calming flow of air throughout the room, helping the environment feel cool Although the instructions were quite a challenge, the finished product got innumerable compliments from guests and visitors, so overall, it  said to be truly worth it.


5. Reiga 44-inch Silver Modern Ceiling Fan Retractable Blades with Dimmable LED Lights

Being in the ceiling fan industry for over 15 years now, Reiga sure knows what most homeowners are looking for.Ceiling Fans with Folding Invisible Blades

Quiet, powerful and efficient pretty much sums up this refreshing retractable blade ceiling fan with its immaculate white lampshade combined with the sleek metal top and rod.

Because of its modern minimalist look, it can fit in with almost every color scheme there is, bringing a summery atmosphere to a room.

Its clear, acrylic blades span 44-inches wide when spread out and has an airflow capacity of 6,709 CFM.

It also has 3 wind speed that is commanded by the remote control. The LED lighting is also amazing on its own, boasting 3 lighting tones that you can dim down to serve as a relaxing night light.

Moreover, it has not one, but three timing functions.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 44 inches transparent acrylic blades when spread out and almost invisible when retracted. 44” length by 44” width and 21.16” height
  • Run by pure copper coil motor that makes it almost soundless. It is also energy and cost efficient, providing your ceiling fan and lamp shade a longer lifetime
  • LED lights can be adjusted to 3 lighting tones which are white light, warm light and yellow light. You can also dim it down to act as a night light
  • It comes with 2 down-rods (5” and 10”) and a remote control with 3 timing functions (1,2,4,8 hours)

Customer feedback:

Customers who were looking for a hidden blade ceiling fan were applicable to sloped ceilings were glad to know that indeed, it can also be installed to a cathedral or curved ceiling with the help of down rods . The power of its fan also satisfied the users because even at the lowest speed, it felt powerful enough and when turned to the highest speed, the whole unit never wobbles or shook. It only made the tiniest, most unnoticeable hum. The dimmable lights proved to be useful and delightful at bedtime when the users want to relax their tired eyes without having to totally turn off the lights.


6.  Fly Cat-Horse Retractable Fan Lights with Invisible Blades

A little bling won’t hurt especially when it comes with many functional options that will certainly elevate the status of your ceiling fan to just more than fancy looks!

This charmer sure is a conversation starter with the enchanting flowery design, consisting of a beautiful aluminum and metal body with highly refractive crystals in the middle to make it look like there is a flower blossoming at the very center of your room.

Moreover, not only has it 3 speed options for its 42 inches retractable blades, and 3 lighting tone options to suit your mood, its light is also dimmable so you can customize it to your liking when you don’t need too much bright light like when you’re in bed.

Features:

  • Its strong acrylic blades span over 42 inches and then retract to 19 inches behind the lamp when it’s not in use.
  • A remote control commands its 3 speed options and 3 lighting tone options with color temperatures that can be changed from 2700K (Warm white) to 4500K (Daylight) and 6000K (Cool White) from a 40 watt LED panel that is also replaceable and dimmable.
  • A timer setting feature with 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours options before the unit automatically turns itself off.
  • Two down rods is provided for you (3.9” and 7.8”) so you can choose one that goes perfectly with your ceiling.

Customer Feedback:

If you are looking for something that will add an air of sophistication to your home while still being practical, this model is highly recommended by the satisfied customers. It proved to be an interesting centerpiece at home, giving it a nice accessory while cooling the room quietly and efficiently.


7. SenHome Industrial Ceiling Fan with Hidden Blades

You want something like this stunning retractable fan with lights when you want to bring a palatial kind of glamour to your home.

Its elegant design that is reminiscent of old European palace interiors is made possible by the skillfully crafted metal and glass combination that makes up its lovely lampshade.

It is also inlaid with highly-refractive K9 crystals along its sleek frame with the high-quality tempered glass mask.

It comes with 3 speed settings and LED light that is adjustable to 3 lighting tones that’s perfectly dimmable so it certainly can cater to whatever mood and needs your room requires.

Moreover, you can also set it to a 1, 2, 4 or 8-hour timer so it will automatically turn itself off while you are sleeping.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 36-inches with the blades open and 18 inches when retracted
  • The transparent retractable blades are made of high-quality acrylic that are perfectly invisible when not in use.
  • It comes with 4” and 8” down-rods for you to choose from.
  • Materials: Aluminum, K9 crystals and high-end tempered glass
  • The ceiling fan has 3 speed options as well as the LED light with the lighting tones white, warm white and yellow and it is completely dimmable.
  • Inserted with pure copper motor that ensures a smooth and quiet run and a longer life for your ceiling fan light with an average of 50,000 hours of life.
  • It comes with a remote control that also has a 1/2/4/8 timing function

Customer Feedback:

Customers were delighted by the new shimmering addition to their homes, which most of them installed in their bedrooms and living rooms. It gave a quiet, confident beauty, and an elegance that is not overbearing. They also loved the remote control and how they can finally control their fans and lights from a distance and how the fan ran ever so silently.


8. Mooni Retractable Ceiling Fan with Light and Remote

Bring an old-world kind of charm right into your home with this Mooni 36 inches retractable ceiling fan with light.

The perfect combination of its high-quality metal with a polished brass finish, glass and sturdy brown acrylic retractable blades completes this fixture’s classy vintage vibe and is perfect for a neutral and rustic themed room.

Not only would you have a praise-worthy 2-in-1 decorative fixture, but you also get to enjoy its easy maintenance, impressive retractable blades that are totally invisible when not in use.

It comes with 3 speed options as well and 3 lighting tones for its chandelier, all of which you can control remotely.

This classy stunner runs on a silent motor to complete the relaxed, cozy mood of your room while providing an impressive air circulation.

Features:

  • Dimensions: The fan’s diameter is 36 inches when it is open and withdraws to 16 inches and is best for 10-18m² rooms
  • The down-rods that come with it are 5” and 10” in length
  • The materials are metal with a rich brass finish, glass for the body and sturdy brown acrylic blades.
  • Its lighting source is a 32-watt LED panel with 3 lighting set-ups and color temperatures which you can change into 2700K (Warm white), 4500K (Day light) and 6000K (Cool White).
  • A remote control which adjusts the speed and lighting options as well as its timer function.

Customer Feedback:

Naturally, one of the first things that made the customers, as well as their guests, fall in love with this home fixture was the retractable blades. At first glance, it was said to look like a lone, elegant chandelier that looks impressive on its own. Who would have thought that brown blades will come spreading out to provide them with a refreshing breeze! When not in use, the blades are perfectly furled and hidden. The simple but classy pattern in its metal body was also a favorite feature as well as the lighting options which provide flexible lighting from day to night.


9. Noxarte Crystal Ceiling Fan with Light and Folding Blades

If you prefer a charming home fixture that induces nostalgia over modern looks, this lovely, retro-inspired ceiling fan with light from Noxarte would be a great choice.

Being made up of high-quality glass and metal with a graceful color combination from the lamp shade’s neutral color and its coffee framing, it sure exudes opulence and class all at the same time.

It is also exceptionally flexible, offering 3 fan speed levels as well as a dimmable, color-changing mode for its lamp with 3 lighting tones to choose from, all controlled by the functional remote control.

Features:

  • Its strong coffee-colored blades is made from acrylic and can spread up to 36 inches and retracts to 16 inches and is hidden when closed.
  • High-quality glass lamp frame.
  • Perfectly dimmable LED lights that can go from warm white, daylight and cool light
  • Also comes with two downrods that are 5” and 10” long.
  • Remote Control included to control the ceiling fan speed and the LED light.

Customer Feedback:

This classy light and fan combo is not just all about looks, as confirmed by the reviews of its proud customers. Its light is said to be so bright, bright enough for a kitchen and even the warmer tones can be used for reading. The fan also did not fail to impress because even the lowest speed proved to be cooling and refreshing enough that users did not even bother to put it on the highest speed.


10. Fanway Classic Indoor Retractable Ceiling Fan

Want the vintage motif without looking overly dandy? This classic Fanway indoor retractable ceiling fan with light dreamily captures the romantic, and at the same time, industrial vintage look.Ceiling Fan with Folding Blades

From the matte nickel shell of the light kit, to the retractable espresso-toned ABS blades, it is made up with the calming, laidback style of Hamptons in mind combined with the classic industrial style that goes well with rustic, natural and neutral themes. However, if espresso and dark hues aren’t your preferred colors of choice, you will be glad to know that there is another option in a chrome frame and clear  folding blades.

Its glow comes from its Edison-style light bulbs that provide an even more old-worldly charm . The fan is dimmable.

Furthermore, it also features 3 speed options for the ceiling fan and when it is turned off, the blades retract, concealed behind the beautiful lamp.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 48 inches when it’s open, making it perfect even for spacious rooms. Its blades are made from ABS plastic that is sturdier and can withstand heat and other conditions well.
  • Its matte nickel material makes it corrosion-proof and is also easy to clean.
  • Three LED bulbs that gives a soft glow to a room it’s in, it is dimmable, as well.
  • It comes with a 5” downrod but the lengths 12″, 18″, 24″ and 36″ can be bought separately.

Customer Feedback:

Its efficient fan that move a serious amount of air around the room is the crowd’s favorite feature. While it works hard, it is hardly noticeable as it makes only whispery sounds and does not shake when running, which the customers also loved. Those who love dim, romantic lights will love its LED bulbs. The users were proud to receive numerous compliments and even inquiries about their retractable ceiling fan with lamp.


11. Deluxe Lamp 42 Inches Acrylic Retractable Blades Chandelier

A stylishly laidback style that truly embodies the Urban interior design, this statement ceiling fan piece will surely catch the eyes of anyone in the same room.

With its classy black lamp kit joined with the bent pipe LED lights that is eccentric in the best way, anyone who wants to seriously revamp their homes would be proud to have this stunner.

Its 42 inches black blades look perfectly invisible when the fan is off, leaving the unconventionally beautiful chandelier to astonish on its own.

In addition to its winning aesthetic, it also comes with 3 lighting tone options to perfectly set the mood of any room.

Features:

  • This unit measures 42 inches when the blades are spread out and 19 inches when hidden.
  • Its replaceable LED panels feature a color changing mode function which turns your light to white, warm white and warm
  • The fan also has 3 options for the speed, all of which you can conveniently control with the provided remote control
  • It comes with two downrods with 4” and 10” length

Customer Feedback:

From the unique attractive design to the folding blades to its powerful air circulation, the majority of customers who bought this modern contemporary piece were fully satisfied with their purchase.


12. Fandian 42” Crystal Ceiling Fan with Retractable Blades and Light

Bring home the majestic grandeur of a 5-star hotel with this exquisite chandelier with ceiling fan that will certainly cause a gasp or two.

With nothing but beauty on its every corner, this model’s chandelier is made even more gorgeous by the highly-refractive K9 crystals that cover the four tiers of its aluminum housing. Like a cherry on the top of a cake, beautiful crystal balls hang from its base, completing its grandiose look.

To make it even more impressive, its high-quality acrylic blades are perfectly clear and run on 3 speed settings for the right air circulation that you prefer.

It also has another 3 lighting tone options and all of these you can set a timer for, so it automatically shuts off while you are asleep.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 42” when the acrylic blades are open and with the chandelier’s diameter of 19 inches when the blades are concealed, perfect for 10㎡-25㎡ sized rooms.
  • Its 40 watts LED lights can go from cool light, warm light and yellow light.
  • Generated by a copper motor which makes it noiseless, energy- and cost-efficient and provides a serving life of 5-10 years.
  • It also comes with a timer function with 1/2/4/8 hour options and a remote control.

Customer Feedback:

The pleased customers were still at awe months after buying this splendid piece. Its perfect aesthetic was said to be worth showing off to guests and friends. With the highly-refracted crystals on the chandelier’s body, the light shimmers off the walls which was a pretty sight to watch. The fan also impressed with its quiet running, it’s almost as if it’s not there. Although the instructions proved to be challenging especially for new owners, the 5-star customer service made up for it.


13. Noxarte Crystal Ceiling Fan with Light and Invisible Blades

Owning one of this Noxarte chandelier ceiling fan is like owning a piece of art.

With its skillfully inlaid crystals that surround its shiny metal casing, it certainly provides a touch of luxury to any room.

The sharp crystals that hang from its base make it look like there are shimmering raindrops from your ceiling.

It boasts not only of aesthetics but also functionality with its 3 speed options and 3 color modes that are dimmable, all of which can be controlled remotely.

It also comes with a timer function that lets it automatically switch off after the number of hours set.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 36” with the acrylic blades open and 16” when retracted
  • The 36-watt LED light kit provides lighting options that can be changed from 2700 to 6000 kelvin and is replaceable and dimmable.
  • A remote control that can control not only the lighting options but the fan’s 3 speed options as well as the timer function.
  • Also comes with 2 downrods (5” and 10”)

Customer Feedback:

Innovative at its best, the amazed customers can’t get over this model’s retractable blades and color changing functions, controlled by a remote control that is easy to operate and understand. The fan was said to be so strong in moving air that even the lowest speed still felt adequate. After it’s finished being installed, the result is an expensive-looking work of art.


14. Lucci Air Fanway Evo 2 Endure Retractable 4-Blade Indoor Ceiling Fan

A refreshing sight to behold after a long day perfectly describes this immaculate white indoor ceiling fan with light from Lucci Air.

Featuring a minimalistic combination of all-white and steel materials, it fits well with any interior from minimalist to boldly colorful.

Its 48-inches fan has 3 speed options and can cool down a large room, with a light that can be dimmed down.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 48” when the fan is open, with blade dimensions of 17.52”L x 4.06”W and can provide an airflow of 4169.88 CFM
  • With dimmable 60-watts LED bulbs
  • Also comes with a remote control

Customer Feedback:

Customers with modern contemporary interiors especially loved this unit’s clean and neat look. Its light is praised to be adequately bright such that it’s best for highly functioning households but can also be dimmed down for bed time allowing for a more relaxed illumination. It’s also easily installed which was a great relief.


14. Moon Lighting Retractable Crystal Ceiling Fan Light with Remote Control

Give your room a premium look without breaking the bank with this dainty chandelier ceiling fan from Moon Lighting.

Looking like a sparkly flower above you, it features a stainless steel shell ornamented with clear crystals that look magical with the lights on.

Its durable ABS blades span 42-inches as they run on copper motor, giving it an almost soundless run and is also energy- and cost-efficient with a longer serving life.

Its lighting options offer 3 different tones to fit every mood you want for your room.

Features:

  • Dimensions: 42” when the fan is open and 16” when the ABS blades are hidden.
  • LED lights offer 3 lighting options (white/neutral/yellow) as well as 3 speed options for the fan, all accessible through the provided remote control.
  • Shutdown timer functions with 1/2/4/8 hour options
  • Generated by pure copper motor providing a strong airflow that is almost soundless.

Customer Feedback:

The color-changing lights is a customer’s favorite. The fan also proved to be really strong and ample for a large room. The users and their guests were star-struck with the dazzling flowery motif of this model. The easy installation is a bonus, as well, and the instructional video for this unit made the assembly a stress-free affair.


16. 42” Indoor Bluetooth Crystal Ceiling Fan with Folding Blades

This exceptional retractable ceiling fan is the epitome of beauty and technology combined.Best Hidden Blade Ceiling Fan

Not only has it fully retractable blades that can be perfectly invisible and LED lights that can provide you 3 different lighting options, it also amazingly comes with a Bluetooth speaker through which you can play your preferred music.

With the perfect music, lighting and airflow, this one home fixture offers you everything you will ever need to set the perfect mood for your room.

It doesn’t hurt that it is also achingly beautiful with its aluminum shell and a classy bronze finish inlaid with clear crystals around its two-tier body.

Features:

  • Diameter: 42” when the blades are spread out and a height of 15.7” that is perfect for 8-25 square meter room
  • LED lights with 3 lighting options (white light, warm light and warm white light) as well as 3 speed options for the fan, all accessible through the provided remote control
  • Shutdown timer functions with 1/2/4/8 hour options
  • Runs on a pure copper motor that ensures a quiet and smooth run. It also makes this unit cost and energy-efficient with a longer serving life.
  • Built-in Bluetooth with which you can play 3D surround sound

Customer Feedback:

Customers loved the super high-end and posh look this invisible ceiling fan offers, especially the teens and kids who love playing music. The fact that its built-in Bluetooth automatically connects to a phone proved to be popular. The fan was noted for its soundless run, even when it’s set on high. The timer feature, which lets you set the number of hours before it automatically shuts off was well-loved as well. Some of the customers found the installation process to be a bit problematic but finally, they were very impressed by the end product so it wasn’t much of a dealbreaker


Sum Up

Today, advanced technology doesn’t only gives us multitudes of options and great designs but it also offers more practical options, like the revolutionary chandelier and ceiling fan combo. Instead of buying both and letting them crowd your ceiling, now you can have both in one unit, saving not only space but money, as well while adding a noteworthy statement piece that you can be proud of.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *